Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize: republished 24 Jun 2014
Corresponding Author: Gilles-Eric Seralini.
Institute of Biology, Esplanade de la Paix, University of Caen, Caen 14032, Cedex, France
Abstract: The health effects of a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize (from 11% in the diet), cultivated with or without Roundup, and Roundup alone (from 0.1 ppb in water), were studied 2 years in rats. In females, all treated groups died 2-3 times more than controls, and more rapidly. This difference was visible in 3 male groups fed GMOs. All results were hormone and sex dependent, and the pathological profiles were comparable. Females developed large mammary tumors almost always more often than and before controls, the pituitary was the second most disabled organ; the sex hormonal balance was modified by GMO and Roundup treatments. In treated males, liver congestions and necrosis were 2.5-5.5 times higher. This pathology was confirmed by optic and transmission electron microscopy. Marked and severe kidney nephropathies were also generally 1.3-2.3 greater. Males presented 4 times more large palpable tumors than controls which occurred up to 600 days earlier. Biochemistry data confirmed very significant kidney chronic deficiencies; for all treatments and both sexes, 76% of the altered parameters were kidney related. These results can be explained by the non linear endocrine-disrupting effects of Roundup, but also by the overexpression of the transgene in the GMO and its metabolic consequences.
Retraced Nov. 2013, Re-published 24 Jun 2014
Published Sept. 19th 2012 in the journal Food and Chemical Toxicology, the Seralini study (seen on the opposite page) created quite a stir within the international scientific community.
The discovery that a diet of genetically modified (GM) corn caused liver, kidney, and pancreatic damage and tumors in lab rats stood in stark contrast to what FDA-sponsored, Monsanto-led science had previously asserted.
Under the direction of Deputy Commissioner of the Office of Foods, Michael R. Taylor (formerly President of public policy at Missouri-based Monsanto corporation, the biggest designer of genetically modified crops), the Food and Drug Administration immediately attempted to call into question the study’s findings.
In November 2013 Richard E. Goodman became the new executive editor at the journal Food and Chemical Toxicology. Goodman, a seven-year employee of Monsanto, promptly retracted the study despite the protests of the Seralini team and much of the scientific community.
Monsanto has successfully positioned over a dozen former executives within governmental regulatory bodies in the last decade.
On June 24th, 2014 the study was re-published in the Journal Environmental Sciences Europe, having gone through a triple-peer-review process. The contents of the re-published study are identical to the original.
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
Biotechnologies companies hail advances in genetics as a way to “feed the world,” but the purpose of genetically modifying corn and other crops is not to add nutrition, as they claim, but rather to make them more resistant to topical herbicides and pests, guaranteeing high yields.
Glyphosate is a highly toxic herbicide sold commercially as “Roundup.” Several varieties of “Roundup-ready” corn, alfalfa, soybeans, and cotton have been genetically engineered to withstand glyphosate treatment.
Glyphosate-resistant “super-weeds” are now sweeping farmland across the South and mid-West. These weeds are thick enough (with stalks up to 4 inches in diameter) to stop an industrial combine and are completely resistant to herbicides.
In addition to super-weeds a new pathogen has been discovered in high populations in roundup-ready corn and soybean crops. This pathogen has been linked to an epidemic of new plant diseases and to alarmingly high rates of spontaneous miscarriage (up to 45%) and infertility in farm animals fed a diet of GMO corn, soy, and alphalpha.
Multiple studies have been published demonstrating that catastrophic DNA damage in humans and other animals occurs from exposure to glyphosate concentrations 450-fold lower than used in agricultural applications.
Roundup-ready seeds are not the only GM crop on the market, however. Bt corn, soybeans, canola, and sugar beets (so named because they contain genes from Bacillus Thuringiensis bacteria) are engineered to exploit horizontal gene transfer to turn the symbiotic bacteria in insects’ stomachs into living pesticide factories.
Horizontal Gene Transfer is a phenomenon by which bacteria absorb genetic material from their environment through the permeable membrane of their cellular structure and incorporate it into their own genetic code.
When an insect eats part of a Bt-gene carrying plant the bacteria in its digestive tract integrate the Bt gene and begin producing crystalline enzymes which rupture the internal walls of the stomach, resulting in evisceration. The bacteria in our stomachs are subject to the same effect.
Multiple studies have been conducted linking consumption of GM crops to intestinal inflammation in farm animals; in humans this is the likely source of skyrocketing rates of obesity, heart problems, and other chronic-inflammation-related diseases as well as cancers and nervous-system disorders.
It is not only physical ailments that stem from consumption of GM crops. As researchers have learned more about the function of our own symbiotic bacteria in recent years a number of discoveries have come to light. The most significant of these is the impact that our digestive bacteria have on our mental health.
Significant research has been conducted recently on what is termed the “microbial-gut-Vagus nerve-brain axis,” or the “gut-brain axis” for short.
The gut-brain-axis is the superstructure formed by our digestive and central-nervous systems. The action of these systems is so intertwined that they are no longer considered as separate.
It has been understood for some time that the Vagus nerve is responsible for regulating hearth rate, blood pressure, and the way that the body deals with physical or psychological stress in general, including peristalsis, the contraction of smooth muscles such as those found in the heart and digestive tract. Anyone who has felt butterflies in their stomachs before making a public speech or suffered from stomach cramping or pain during times of stress has felt firsthand the vagus-nerve-mediated interaction between the brain and the gut. How is this?
The majority of the neurotransmitters in our bodies, including serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, are produced by the symbiotic bacteria in our intestinal tracts. Accordingly, the health of these bacteria is tied inextricably to both our physical and mental health.
This means that anyone who is eating a diet of pesticide-laden produce, processed foods, and high-fructose corn syrup is doing catastrophic damage to their internal flora and robbing themselves of the chemical transmitters which enable mental agility and feelings of happiness.